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تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة

Human Skeleton Bones of the skull The bones of the skull seen from the front. Frontal bone. B) Parietal Bone. C) Sphenoid bone, greater wing. D) Temporal bone. E)

تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة


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الموضوع: تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة

Human Skeleton Bones of the skull The bones of the skull seen from the front. Frontal bone. B) Parietal Bone. C) Sphenoid bone, greater wing. D) Temporal bone. E)

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    الصورة الرمزية املي بالله
    املي بالله
    املي بالله غير متواجد حالياً

    نائبة المدير العام Array
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    افتراضي تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة


    Human Skeleton
    Bones of the skull



    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 1-1_static.jpg
    The bones of the skull seen from the front.

    Frontal bone.
    B) Parietal Bone.
    C) Sphenoid bone, greater wing.
    D) Temporal bone.
    E) Zygomatic bone (origin of mm.zygomaticus major and minor).
    F) Maxilla.
    G) Nasal bones.
    H) Mandible.

    a) Coronal suture.
    b) Frontal suture.
    c) Squamus suture.
    d) Frontal eminence.
    e) Superciliary ridge (covered by m. corrugator supercilii).
    f) Glabella.
    g) Zygomatic process.
    h) Supraorbital margin.
    i) Supraorbital notch (or foramen) (for the passage of the supraorbital artery, vein and nerve).
    k) Frontal bone, nasal process.
    l) Nasal Spine.
    m) Nasal process of the maxilla (origin of mm frontalis, orbicularis palpebrum, and levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, and zygomaticomaxillary suture and medial palpebral ligament).
    n) Zygomatic process of the maxilla.
    o) Alveolar process of the maxilla (origin of mm. compressor, depressor nasi, buccinator,and incisivi labii superioris and inferioris).
    p) Infraorbital foramen (exit of infraorbital canal carrying the infraorbital artery, vein, and nerve).
    q) Maxillary depression (origin of m. levator anguli oris).
    r) Anterior nasal spine (origin of m. orbicularis oris).
    s) Nasal pyriform aperature.
    t) Infraorbital margin (covered by the m. orbicularis palpebrum and origin of m. levator labii superioris proprius).
    u) Fossa of the lacrimal sac.
    v) Alveolar yokes.
    w) Maxillary process of the zygomatic bone (origin of m. zygomaticus minor).
    x) Frontal of the zygomatic bone.
    y) Temporal process of the zygomatic bone.
    z) Zygomaticofacial foramen. (transmits the zygomaticofacial nerve).

    a)Mentum (chin), external mental spine.
    b) Mental foramen (exit for the mental artery, vein, and nerve).
    g) Mandibular angle (beginning of mm masseter and medial pterygoid).
    d) Mandibular ramus.
    e) Mastoid process.
    z)Optic foramen (for the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery).
    h) Superior orbital fissure. (between the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone) (passage for the ophthalmic vein, nn. oculomotor, trochlear, ophthalmic, and abducens nerves).
    q) Inferior orbital fissure (between the greater wing of the sphenoid and maxillary bone) (passage for ophthalmic vein, infraorbital nerve, artery, and vein, and cutaneous nerve of the cheek).
    i) Zygomaticoorbital foramen (transmits zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal brs. to the temporal fossa


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 1-2_static.jpg
    The bones of the skull, lateral view.

    Frontal bone.
    B) Parietal bone.
    C) Temporal bone.
    D) Sphenoid bone, greater wing.
    E) Zygomatic bone.
    F) Maxilla.
    G) Nasal bone.
    H) Mandible.

    a) Frontal eminence (ossification center).
    b) Superciliary arch (covered by m. corrugator supercilii).
    d) Glabella (the frontal sinus behind).
    e) Supraorbital margin (covered by the external stratum of m. orbicularis palpebrarum).
    f) Superorbital fissure (in some skulls, a foramen) (passage for supraorbital artery, vein, and nerve).
    g) Zygomatic process.
    h) Temporal line.
    i) Semicircular line (the boundry of the planum semicircular from which m. temporalis originates).
    k) Coronal suture.
    l) Parietal eminence.
    m) Temporal bone, squamous part (origin of m temporalis).
    n) Temporal bone, mastoid part.
    o) Temporal bone, mastoid process.
    p) Mastoid notch or groove.
    q) External auditory meatus.
    r) Zygomatic arch (zygomatic process of the temporal bone) (origin of mm.masseter and attrahens auriculae and temporozygomatic suture).
    s) Zygomatic bone, temporal process.
    t) Zygomatic bone, frontal process (frontozygomatic suture).
    u) Zygomatic bone, maxillary process.
    v) Zygomaticoorbital foramen (passage for zygomaticofacial nerve of the cheek).
    w) Maxilla bone, zygomatic process.
    x) Maxillary depression (origin of the m. levator anguli oris).
    y) Infraorbital foramen.
    z) Maxillary tuberosity.
    1. Frontal process or superior maxillary nasal bone.
    2. Alveolar process of the maxillary bone, with the alveolar eminences.
    3. Pterygoid process, lateral ala (wing).
    4. **** of mandible.
    5. Spine or external mental protuberance.
    6. Mental foramen (exit of inferior alveolar canal, passage for mental artery, vein and nerve).
    7. Lateral oblique line (attachment site for buccinator muscle).
    8. Alveolar margin with alveolar ridge.
    9. Mandibular angle.
    10. Coronoid process of the mandible.
    11. Mandibular Condylar process.
    12. Mandibular notch.
    13. Pyriform aperture.
    14. Anterior nasal spine.
    15. Fossa for the lacrymal sac.
    16. Squamous suture.
    17. Mastoid suture.
    18. Transverse suture

    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 1-3_static.jpg
    The inner wall of the bones of the orbit, and the pterygopalatine fossa and their surroundings.

    . Frontal bone.
    B. Nasal bone
    C. Maxillary bone.
    D. Palatine bone (perpendicular part; pterygopalatine fossa).
    E. Ethmoidal bone (lamina papyracea).
    F. Lacrymal bone.
    G. Sphenoid bone.

    a) Fossa for lacrymal sac.
    b) Infraorbital foramen.
    c) Ethmoidal foramen.
    e) Maxillary sinus (antrum of Highmore).
    f) Pterygoid process.
    g) Pterygopalatine canal.
    h) Pterygopalatine foramen.
    i) Orbital process, palatine bone.
    k) Sphenoid process, palatine bone.
    l) Orbital part of the frontal bone.
    m) Anterior clinoid process.
    n) Sella turcica.
    o) Optic foramen.
    p) Posterior clinoid process.
    q) Carotid canal.
    r) Lingula.
    s) Pterygoid canal (Vidian canal).
    t) Styloid process


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 1-4_static.jpg
    The external wall of the (left) nasal bones with their muscles.

    ) Frontal bone, frontal part.
    B) Sphenoid bone, ****.
    C) Pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone.
    D) Palatine bone, perpendicular part.
    E) Palatine bone, horizontal part.
    F) Maxillary bone, palatine process.
    G) Inferior concha, inferior turbinate bone.
    H) Nasal lamina, ethmoid labyrinth.
    I) Frontal process (nasalis of the maxillary bone).
    K) Nasal bone.

    a) Frontal sinus.
    b) Ethmoidal sinus.
    c) Sphenoidal sinus.
    d) Superior concha, highest turbinate bone.
    e) Middle concha, middle turbinate bone.
    f) Pterygopalatine foramen, in the perpendicular part of the palatine bone.
    g) Pterygoid process, medial wing.
    h) Pterygoid process, lateral wing.
    i) Lacrymal canal, exit.
    k) Incisive canal (for the passage of the nasopalatine artey, vein, and nerve).
    l) Sulcus for the external nasal branch of the anterior ethmoid nerve


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 1-5_static.jpg
    The ethmoid bone, by its upper outer surface.

    ) Lamina cribrosa (horizontalis).
    B) Ethmoidal, labryinth.
    C) Lamina perpendicularis.

    a) Crista galli.
    b) Winged processes.
    c) Foramina cribrosa.
    d) Lamina papyracea.


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 1-6_static.jpg
    The ethmoid bone, from its interior surface.

    A) Labyrinthus ethmoidalis (consists of sinus ethmoidales, lamina papyracea, and lamina nasalis with the middle and superior conchae).
    B) Lamina perpendicularis.
    C) Lamina cribrosis.

    a) Uncinate process.
    b) Middle concha, middle turbinate of nasal bone.
    c) Superior concha, upper turbinate of nasal bone


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 1-7_static.jpg
    The left palatine bone, from its media surface.

    A) Perpendicular part (palatine bone).
    B) Horizontal part.

    a) Nasal crest.
    b) Posterior nasal spine.
    c) Inferior turbinate crest.
    d) Superior turbinate crest.
    e) Orbital process.
    f) Sphenoidal process.
    g) Pterygopalatine foramen.
    h) Nasal process.
    i) Pyramidal process


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 1-8_static.jpg
    The hyoid bone, from the front.

    a) Corpus (****) (transverse line a for m. mylohyoideus, depression,bfor mm. geniohyoid. Support for mm. digastricus, mylo-, genio-, stylo-, sterno-, thyreo-, and omohyoideus, hyoglossus and thyreoideus).
    b) Greater horn.
    c) Lesser horn (origin of mm. chondroglossus and chondropharyngeus, ligament stylohyoideus).
    e) Head of the greater horn (for ligamentum hyothyreoideum).



    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 2-1_static.jpg
    The interior **** of the skull.

    A) Frontal bone (orbital part).
    B) Lesser wing of the sphenoid bone.
    C) Greater wing of the sphenoid bone.
    D) Squama of the temporal bone.
    E) Petrous portion of the temporal bone.
    F) Mastoid process of the temporal bone.
    G) Occipital part of the occipital bone.
    H) Basilar part of the occipital bone.
    I) Lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone.

    a) Cerebral ridge.
    b) Digitate impressions.
    c) Internal frontal spine, located in the longitudinal sulcus and it is attached to the falx cerebri.
    d) Crista galli is connected to the falx cerebri.
    e) Foramina cribrosa allowing passage of olfactoria nerve.
    f) Anterior clinoid process.
    g) Optic foramen for the passage of the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery.
    h) Middle clinoid process.
    i) Sella turcica, the fossa for the hypophysis gland.
    k) Posterior clinoid process.
    l) Carotid sulcus and exit of the carotid canal.
    m) Superior orbital fissure (passage for ophthalmic vein, and nn oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens).
    n) Foramen rotundum (for maxillary nerve).
    o) Foramen ovale (for mandibular nerve).
    p) Foramen spinosum (for middle meningeal artery, occasionally for the lesser superficial petrosal nerve).
    q) Canal or Hiatus for the greater petrosal nerve (passage for the nerve of the pterygoid canal).
    r) Internal auditory meatus (passage for acoustic artery, vein, and nerve and the facial nerve).
    s) Vestibular aqueduct.
    t) Jugular foramen (passage for internal jugular vein, nn glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory).
    u) Fossa for the medulla oblongata.
    v) Clinoid process.
    w) Anterior condyloid foramen (passage for hypoglossal nerve).
    x) Posterior condyloid foramen (passage for Santorini emissary vein; often absent).
    y) Mastoid foramen.
    z) Foramen magnum (passage for medulla oblongata, accessory nerve, vertebral artery and vein and spinal arteries).

    a) Sigmoid fossa (a part of the transverse sulcus).
    b) Internal occipital spine (cruciate eminence).
    g) Internal occipital ridge (for the falx cerebelli).
    d) Foramin cecum.
    e) Ephippium with the clivus.
    z) Foramen cecum.
    h) Lingula.
    q) Transverse sulcus.
    i) Condyloid process of the occipital bone


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 2-2_static.jpg
    The inferior or outer surface of the skull ****.

    A) Palatine process of the maxilla.
    B) Alveolar processes of the maxilla.
    C) Maxilla bone.
    D) Horizontal part of the palatine bone.
    E) Pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone.
    F) Greater wing of the sphenoid bone.
    G) Vomer.
    H) Squamous part of the temporal bone.
    I) Mastoid part of the temporal bone.
    K) Petrous portion of the temporal bone.
    L) Basilar part of the occipital bone.
    M) Condyloid part of the occipital bone.
    N) Occipital part of the occipital bone.
    O) Zygomatic arch.

    a) Incisive foramen (incisive canal) (passage for nasopalatine artery, vein, and nerve).
    b) Posterior nasal spine (origin of the uvula).
    c) Palatine foramen (passage for arteries, veins, and the palatine nerves).
    d) Medial wing of the pterygoid process (pterygoid hamulus, origin of pterygopharyngeal part of the superior pharyngeal constrictor).
    e) Pterygoid fossa (origin of medial pterygoid muscle).
    f) Lateral wing of the pterygoid process (origin of the m lateral pterygoid).
    g) Choanae narium, posterior opening of the nose.
    h) Foramen ovale (passage for the maxillary nerve).
    i) Foramen spinosum (passage for middle meningeal artery and lesser superficial petrosal nerve).
    k) Inferior orbital fissure (between the greater wing of the pterygoid and maxilla; passage of the facial ophthalmic vein, infraorbital artery, vein and nerve and cutaneus nerve of the cheek).
    l) Articular fossa (for mandibular condyle).
    m) Articular tubercle.
    n) Petrotympanic fissure (passage for tympanic artery, chorda tympani and m tensor typani).
    o) Eustacian tube (Auditory tube).
    p) External auditory meatus.
    q) Entrance to the carotid canal (passage for internal carotid artery and the carotid nerve).
    r) Styloid process (origin for mm stylohyoid, styloglossus, stylopharyngeus and of stylohyoid ligament).
    s) Stylomastoid foramen (passage for the facial nerve and for the stylomastoid artery).
    t) Cochlear aquaduct.
    u) Jugular foramen (passage for internal jugular vein, glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves).
    v) Petrosal fossa (for the petrosal ganglion of glossopharyngeal nerve).
    w) Condyle of the occipital bone (connected to the atlas by a hinge joint).
    x) Anterior condyloid foramen s. hypoglossal canal (passage for the hypoglossal nerve).
    y) Posterior condyloid foramen (passage for Santorini’s emissary vein; often absent).
    z) Mastoid process (attachment site for mm sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, longissimus capitis and mm retahentes auriculae [auricularis posterior]).

    a) Mastoid incisure (origin of m digastricus).
    b) Mastoid foramen (passage for an emissary vein of Santorini or posterior meningeal artery).
    g) External occipital spine.
    d) External occipital crest (protuberance) (origin of ligamentun nuchae).
    e) Inferior nuchal line (attachment site for mm rectus capitis posterior major and minor, and supeior capitis oblique).
    z) Superior nuchal line (attachment site for mm trapezius, digastricus, semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis and sternocleidomastoideus).
    h) Spinous process (origin of mm tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani).


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 2-3_static.jpg
    The left temporal bone seen from the outside.

    A) Squamous part.
    B) Mastoid part.
    C) Petrosal part.

    a) Zygomatic process.
    b) Articular tubercle.
    c) Articular fossa.
    d) Petrotympanic fissure.
    e) External auditory meatus.
    f) Mastoid process.
    g) Mastoid foramen (stylomastoid ).
    h) Mastoid incisure (digastric or mastoid groove).
    i) Styloid process


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 2-4_static.jpg
    The left temporal bone inner surface.

    A) Squamous part.
    B) Mastoid part.
    C) Petrosal part.

    a) Digitate impressions.
    b) Juga cerebralia or Cerebral ridge.
    c) Articular fossa.
    d) Mastoid process.
    e) Sigmoid fossa or sigmoid sulcus.
    f) Mastoid foramen.
    g) Styloid process.
    h) Point of the petrous part with opening of carotid canal.
    i) Internal auditory meatus.
    k) Petrous margin or angle (posterior border of the petrous part of the temporal bone).
    l) Vestibular aquduct.
    m) Arcuate eminence


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 2-5_static.jpg
    The os sphenoid, from its upper or its brain surface.

    ) **** or ****.
    B) Lesser wing or ensiform process of the sphenoid.
    C) Greater wing (cerebral outer surface).

    a) Medial clinoid process.
    b) Sella Turcica, the fossa for the hypophysis gland.
    c) Posterior clinoid process.
    d) Carotid sulcus.
    e) Anterior clinoid process.
    f) Optic foramen.
    g) Superior orbital fissure.
    h) Foramen rotundum.
    i) Foramen ovale.
    k) Foramen spinosum.
    l) Spinous process.
    m) Lingula.
    n) Sphenoid crest.
    o) Superior margin (articulates with the frontal bone).
    p) Posterior margin (articulates with squamous part of temporal bone).
    q) Posterior inferior part (placed on the petrus part of the temporal bone).
    r) Clivus


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 2-6_static.jpg
    The anterior surface of the sphenoid bone.

    ) **** of the sphenoid bone.
    B) Lesser wing of the sphenoid.
    C) Greater wing of the sphenoid (orbital surface).
    D) Pterygoid process.

    a) Posterior clinoid process.
    b) Sella turcica (fossa for the hypophysis).
    c) Orifice of the sphenoid sinus.
    d) Sphenoid crest.
    e) Superior orbital fissure.
    f) Orbital surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.
    g) Foramen rotundum.
    h) Vidian canal (pterygoid canal).
    i) Spinous process.
    k) Pterygoid sulcus or palatine sulcus (the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine canal).
    l) Lateral wing of the pterygoid process.
    m) Medial wing of the pterygoid process.
    n) Pterygoid notch.
    o) Pterygoid hamulus


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 2-7_static.jpg
    The mandible seen from its anterior surface.

    A) ****, horizontal part.
    B) Ramus.

    a) Inferior surface of the ****; the **** (attachment site for mm scalene, quadratus menti, platysma, and digastricus).
    b) Alveolar margin, with sixteen alveoli.
    c) External mental protuberance.
    d) Mental foramen (passage for mental artery, vein, and nerve; exit for the inferior alveolar canal).
    e) External oblique line (origin for the m buccinator).
    f) Mandibular angle (insertion for m masseter).
    g) Condyloid process (from the neck).
    h) Coronoid process (insertion for m temporalis).
    i) Semilunar incisure.
    k) Incisure teeth.
    l) Canine teeth.
    m) Molar teeth


    تشريح الهيكل العظمى - الجمجمة 2-8_static.jpg
    The mandible is placed to see the inner surface.

    A) **** or horizontal part of the mandible.
    B) Ramus of the mandible.

    a) **** or inferior surface.
    b) Alveolar margin.
    c) Internal mental spine (origin for mm geniohyoid and genioglossus).
    d) Internal oblique line (origin for mm mylohyoid and for mylopharyngeus or superior pharyngeal constrictor).
    e) Inferior mandibular angle.
    f) Condyloid process.
    g) Coronoid process.
    h) Semilunar incisure.
    i) Inferior alveolar foramen (entrance to inferior alveolar canal).
    k) Mylohyoid sulcus, for the mylohyoid nerve from the inferior alveolar nerve


    </I>

  2. = '
    ';
  3. [2]
    نغم السماء
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    من الاعضاء المؤسسين Array


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    رفـيق الـدرب Array


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